The Orissa Ancient Monuments Preservation Rules, 1958
Published vide Notification No. 21039 7-E/A-40/38-E, dated the 17th December, 1953
(a) "Act" means the Orissa Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1956 (Orissa Act 12 of 1956);
(b) "Archaeological Officer" means the officer in charge of the Department of Archaeology in the State of Orissa;
(c) "Form" means a form set out in the Schedule.3. State Government to call upon the Archaeological Officer to report. - Before declaration is made under Section 3 of the Act the State Government may call upon the Archaeological Officer to submit a report on the ancient monument to be protected. The Archaeological Officer shall thereupon by exploration, correspondence or otherwise obtain details of area specifying the boundaries situated in the village or town as given in the settlement records in Form I and then he shall submit his report to the Secretary to the Government in the Cultural Affairs Department. The Secretary to the Government in the Department of Cultural Affairs shall then publish a notification in the official Gazette and also send a copy thereof to the Collector of the district in which the monument is situated for publication at a conspicuous place on or near the monument in question or by any other means as the Collector thinks fit. Any objection received by the Collector in pursuance of this notice shall be transmitted to the Secretary to Government in Cultural Affairs Department, with the opinion of the Collector thereon after making necessary enquiries. The State Government in the Cultural Affairs Department shall thereupon take actions as provided in Section 3 of the Act. 4. Notice Board. - When a monument is declared as protected monument under Section 3 of the Act, the Archaeological Officer shall fix up a Notice Board at a prominent place near the protected monument containing a notice issued by the District Magistrate together with the penalties as specified in Section 16 of the Act. The text of the notice shall be in Form II appended to these rules. 5. Duty of the Archaeological Officer. - (a) After a monument Is declared as a protected one according to the Act, it shall be the duty of the Archaeological Officer to take necessary protective measures for conservation of the monument from further damage or injury or decay. The protective measures shall be such that the original condition of the monument should under no way be affected. Before taking the protective measures the Archaeological Officer shall consult the Executive Engineer of the area for any technical help that may be necessary for the protection of the monument,
(b) For the protection of the monuments brought to light by excavation, the Archaeological Officer shall consult the Executive Engineer for such technical help as will be necessary for the conservation work.6. Collector to consult the Archaeological Officer. - When the Collector proposes to take action under Section 4 of the Act both in his own capacity as well as that of the Commissioner, he may consult the Archaeological Officer in direct charge of the protected monuments. 7. Appeal. - The agreements specified in Sections 5 and 6 of the Act shall be in Form III appended to these rules. For settlement of any dispute under Clause (h) of Sub-section (2) of Section 5 of the Act, the State Government shall appoint a judicial officer not below the rank of a District Judge. 8. Land Acquisition. - When land is required to be acquired under Sections 10, 22 and 23 of the Act, the Archaeological Officer shall initiate the proceeding by moving the Revenue Department through the Department of Cultural Affairs. 9. Hearing of objections and appellate authority. - Whenever any person applies the Collector for permission for removal of sculptures specified in Sub-section (1) of Section 17 of the Act, the Collector may call for a report from the Archaeological Officer and on receipt of this report he shall pass order granting or refusing the permission. The appellate authority against the orders of the Collector refusing to grant him permission shall be the Divisional Commissioner having jurisdiction over the district. If any person removes any object in contravention of the notification issued under the said sub-section then in addition to the penalties provided in the Act the object removed shall be confiscated to the State Government. 10. Protected Area. - Before the State Government declare an area protected under Sub-section (1) of Section 19 of the Act, they shall cause a notice of the intended declaration to be published in the Gazette or in such manner as they may deem fit and the Collector shall cause public notice of such intention to be given at convenient places on or near the area in question such notice shall specify the boundaries of the area and shall invite any person who objects to the proposed declaration to forward to the Collector a statement of grounds of such objections within one month of the date on which the notice is exhibited. Any objections received in pursuance of this invitation shall be transmitted to the Secretary to the Government of Orissa in the Cultural Affairs Department with the opinion of the Collector thereon and shall be taken into consideration by the Orissa Government before they decide to issue the notification. 11. Licence. - (1) Every application for a licence under Section 21 shall be addressed to the Archaeological Officer, Orissa, and shall state the qualification of the applicant, whether a licence is required in respect of the whole of the protected area and, if not, the limits within which it is required and the amount of labour which the applicant proposes to employ. (2) The Archaeological Officer shall have power to grant or refuse such licence : Provided that the Archaeological Officer shall not grant a licence unless he is satisfied with the competence of the Society or Institution or individual applying for the same. (3) Such licence shall not be granted until the applicant has furnished security of such amount as the State Government in the Cultural Affairs Department may require such security shall be furnished by cash, or of securities of equivalent value, or with the permission of the State Government by the execution of a bond with two approved personal securities. The licence under this section shall be granted in Form IV-A and the bond referred to in this section shall be executed in Form IV-B hereto appended. (4) Such licence shall not be transferable and shall remain in force for the period specified in the conditions of licence in Form IV-A .depending upon the nature of the excavations : Provided that the Archaeological Officer may extend the duration of any licence and may cancel any licence at any time if he' is of opinion that the results of the excavations are unsatisfactory, or on any breach by the licensee, his servant, or agent of the conditions of the licence : Provided further that on any breach by the licensee, his servant or agent of the conditions of the licence, the Archaeological Officer may in addition to or in lieu of cancelling the licence and without prejudice to the penalty hereinafter provided, direct the forfeiture to the State Government either the whole or a part of the security furnished under Sub-rule (3). (5) The licensee shall be entitled to appeal to the State Government in the Cultural Affairs Department against any orders of the Archaeological Officer, directing the grant of and cancellation of a licence, or the forfeiture of the security in whole or in part. (6) The State Government in the Cultural Affairs Department may recover from the security furnished under Sub-rule (3) such portion, if any, as they may in each case think fit of -
(i) the value of any archaeological and historical objects of interest found in the area in respect of which the licence is held which are lost or destroyed while in the custody of the licensee, his servant or agent ;
(ii) any compensation payable by the State Government under Subsection (2) of Section 20 in respect of that area;
(iii) the cost of the State Government of acquiring that area under Section 22.12. Cancellation of licence. - When any forfeiture of or recovery from the security furnished under Sub-rule (3) of Rule 10 is effected under Sub-rules (4) and (6) thereof and the licence remains in force, the Archaeological Officer may require the licensee within such time as he may appoint in this behalf to deposit such further sum in cash or securities of equivalent value or, as the case may be, to execute a supplementary bond with two approved securities for such amount as will restore the original amount of the security and if such further sum of supplementary bond is not deposited or executed within the time appointed, the licence shall be cancelled. 13. Refund of security. - On the expiration or cancellation of a licence, the unforfeited balance of any cash deposited, or as the case may be by any bond executed by the licensee shall be returned to him on the Archaeological Officer's certifying that no liability recoverable under Sub-rule (4) or (6) of Rule 11 is outstanding against the licensee. 14. Conditions of licence. - Every licence under Section 21 shall be granted on the following conditions :
(i) excavation undertaken by the licensee shall be conducted under the supervision of or with the approval of the Archaeological Officer either by the licensee himself or of a competent Archaeologist approved by the Archaeological Officer in conformity with any instructions which the Archaeological Officer may give. The persons approved by the Archaeological Officer to supervise the conduct of excavations shall be furnished at the expense of the licensee with adequate equipment for making such photographic and other records and architectural plans of the area in respect of which the licence is held and of any archaeological or historical relics found therein as shall be specified by the Archaeological Officer.
(ii) No building found in the area in respect of which the licence is held shail be dismantled, removed or disturbed save with the permission of the Archaeological Officer.
(iii) The licensee shall, as soon as practicable after their discovery, furnish the State Archaeological Officer with a detailed list of all old relics found in that area.
(iv) The excavation and all objects discovered in the course thereof shall be open to inspection at any time by any officer of the State Archaeological Department or by any person authorised by the Archaeological Officer, in this behalf and it shall be open to such person or officer to make any notes or drawings or impressions in paper or plaster or to take any photographs of the site under excavation or of any archaeological or historical objects recovered therefrom.
(v) The licensee shall be responsible for the care of all property, movable or immovable, found in the course of excavations, and shall, if required by Archaeological Officer maintain a guard over the excavations.
(vi) The licensee shall not later than the 31st July in each year supply the State Archaeological Department with a summary report of the main results of the work performed up to 31st March in that year in a form suitable for publication either by the State Department of Archaeology or in a recognised archaeological Journal.
(vii) The licensee shall take steps, to the satisfaction of the Archaeological Officer, to render buildings safe after preliminary excavation and shall also repair any damage done to the ground. If the licensee fails to do so within such time as the Archaeological Officer may consider to be reasonable. The work may be carried out by the State Archaeological Department and the cost recovered from the cash security or bond furnished by the licensee under Rule 10.
(viii) The licensee shall not subject any object of archaeological or historical interest that may be discovered during the excavations to any chemical or electrolytic process or to any other process of cleaning, which is likely to discolour, disfigure or deface the same unless he has previously obtained permission in writing from the Archaeological Officer.
(ix) The licensee shall be produced on demand before the District Magistrate or the District Superintendent of Police and the Sub-divisional Magistrate.15. Penalty. - Any person committing a breach of these rules, and any licensee committing a breach of conditions of his licence shall be punishable with a fine which may extend to five thousand rupees and the licensee shall be so punishable for any breach of the condition of his licence which is committed by a servant or agent of the licensee. 16. Restriction on the publication of a report. - Except as provided by clause viz. of Rule 13 the State Archaeological Department shall not, without the consent of the licensee, publish a report of the results of the operations undertaken by the licensee unless the licensee fails to publish such report within three years of the expiration of the licence, or within that period publishes a report which the Archaeological Officer considers to be inadequate. 17. Disposal of historical and archaeological objects. - The archaeological and historical objects found by a licensee in the area in respect of which the licensee is held shall be disposed of by the State Government after consultation with the Archaeological Officer or, if in any case they think fit to appoint a committee to advise on the subjects, shall be subject to the following requirements :
(i) Human relics or historical and religious importance and any objects, which in the opinion of the State Government are of national importance, or are indispensable for the purpose of illustrating the art of the country, shall remain the property of the State Government and shall be retained in Orissa.
(ii) Subject to the provision in Clause (i) the licensee shall be permitted to retain such portion of such archaeological or historical objects as will be sufficient in the opinion of the State Government to recompense him for the expenditure incurred in the course of his operations under the licence.
(iii) Duplicates of the archaeological or historical or pre-historical objects shall be distributed by the State Government to the. National Museum, New Delhi or to other States' museums either by free distribution or on exchange basis.18. Interpretation of the rule. - If any dispute arises as regards the interpretation of these rules or of the terms of the licence, the matter shall be referred to the State Government in Cultural Affairs Department [See Notification No. 4058-CA, dated 18.10.1966) whose decision shall be final. 19. Instruction regarding the decipherment, preservation and publication of inscriptions are contained in Enclosure V appended to these rules
[See Rule 3]
Form of the Department of Archaeology for giving particulars of the Ancient Monuments
District...............1. Locality................................................. 2. Lat............................Long.................Survey sheet 3. P. S..................P.O.............. Taluk........................Sub-division.................. 4. Approach (including reference to river, condition of road and transport) 5. Name of monument/site - Alternative names 6. Description : (Type, masonry, outstanding features, extended height etc., in the case of mounds) 7. Associated antiquities (including inscriptions, coins, pottery, stone or metal implements) 8. Date of monument/site 9. Published references 10 Photographs (past and present) 11. Drawings (past and present) 12. State of preservation and conservation required A/R (including Chowkidars and S/R costs). 13. Was the monument protected by the former State ? 14. Former Caretakers or Trustees or Custodian (including staff) and conservation work if any, done by them (including year of work and expenditure) 15. Boundaries existing and recommended (including reference to any modern structure that might exist) 16. Whether in religious use or not 17. Ownership 18. Any agreement between the owner and the present Caretaker or Trustee or Custodian 19. Recommendation 20. Date of Inspection 21. Office file and up to date position regarding protection 22. Any other remarks
Form - II
[See Rule 4]
Form of notice to be fixed in Ancient MonumentUnder the provisions of the Orissa Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1956 any person who damages or disfigures the protected Monuments is liable to imprisonment which may extend to three months or to a fine which may extend to Rs. 5,000 or to both.
Form - III
[See Rule 7]
Agreement FormThis Indenture made this............day of 20 between (hereinafter referred to on his/their own behalf and when the context so requires on behalf also of his/their successors, executors, administrators, representatives and assigns as the owner or Trustee of the one part and the Governor of Orissa acting in these presents through the Collector of district (hereinafter referred to on behalf of himself, the successor in office and assigns as the Governor of Orissa or other part) ; Whereas the monuments described in the schedule hereto (hereinafter referred to as the 'said monuments') have been duly declared to be protected monuments under provisions of Section 3 of this Orissa Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1956 (12 of 1956) by the notification of the Government of Orissa (hereinafter referred to as the State Government) No.............dated the.........confirmed by the notification No........dated the............ Now these presents witness that in consideration of the mutual benefits and covenants hereinafter contained the Trustee, owner and the Governor of Orissa do hereby mutually covenant and agree each with the other that is to say-
(1) That the said monument/monuments shall be maintained in repair by the Governor through the Archaeological Department of the Orissa Government : Provided always that the said department shall determine what repairs, if any, shall, from time to time, be carried out.
(2) That the Archaeological Officer, Orissa Government (hereinafter called 'the said Officer') shall be custodian of the said monuments.
(3) That the trustee/owner shall not undertake any repairs to the said monuments without the previous sanction in writing of the said Officer.
(4) That the owner or Trustee shall not destroy, remove, alter, deface or imperil the said monuments.
(5) That the owner or trustee shall not build on or near the sites of the said monuments or cultivate the sites or any part thereof without the previous permission in writing of the said officer.
[But such of the said monuments as are used for religious worship shall continue to be used as heretofore for that purpose and such observances shall not in any way be affected by this agreement (where necessary) :
(6) That the public shall have free access to the said monuments subject to the following restrictions
(a) that no non-Hindu shall be allowed to enter inside any of the said monuments which is used for religious worship by Hindus;
(b) that no shoe and other forbidden leather articles shall be taken inside the compound walls of such monuments.
(7) That the said officer or such other person or persons as he may depute for the purpose shall be permitted to inspect the monumen's at any time that he considers necessary.
(8) That the owner or trustee may terminate this agreement on giving six months' notice to the Collector of....district and the Governor may terminate without the notice if the owner or trustee fails to comply with any condition of this agreement : Provided always that the owner or trustee shall, in such cases, be liable to pay to the Governor on demand (should the Governor so claim) all the expenses incurred by him in the repairing, restoring or maintaining the said monuments during the five years previous to the termination of this agreement or during the such part thereof as the agreement may have been in force.
(9) That the Governor may terminate this agreement on giving six months' notice in which case the owner/trustee will not (except as aforesaid) be held responsible for any sums previously expended by the Governor on the repair of the said monuments.
(10) That the owner or trustee shall give the Archaeological Officer, Orissa on behalf of the Governor six months' previous notice in writing if the said monuments or any portions thereof are to be offered for sale.
(11) That the right shall be reserved and is hereby given to the Governor to purchase, at their market value, the said monuments or any portions thereof in the event of their being offered for sale by the owner or trustee.
(12) That while this agreement is in force the owner/trustee shall not alienate or hypothecate or change or burden the said monuments or any portions thereof of the land on which they stand or remove any movable property appertaining to the said monuments : Provided always that this shall not apply to the jewellery of the deities, if any;
(13) That the owner or trustee shall not lease out any land or erect or to have erected any permanent or temporary construction on any land belonging to the ...........between the compound walls of the said ...........and the adjacent roads and shall terminate the existing lease of such land or of the constructions thereon. Such lands adjacent to the rest of the said monuments as belong to the owner or trustee shall similarly be kept free of permanent and temporary constructions.
(14) That in the case of such of the said monuments as are used for religious worship, the leaves, flowers, etc., offered by worshippers and thrown inside such monuments, leavings of the Bhoga sold to and partaken of by worshippers and kitchen refuse such as ashes, peels of vegetables etc., thrown inside the compound, shall be arranged to be removed by the owner or trustee, who shall also be responsible for keeping the premises of such monuments clear and tidy.
(15) That if any of the said monuments is fitted with electrical installations, the owner or trustee shall be responsible for the recurring and non-recurring expenditure on the maintenance of and repairs to the electric installations and for the electric charges.
(16) That except as herein expressly provided each of the parties hereto shall in relation to the said monuments have all the rights and be subject to all the duties and liabilities conferred by the said Act.
(17) That any dispute arising out of this agreement and his decision referred to the District Judge shall be final.In witness whereof the parties have herein to set their hands the day and year first above written. The Schedule above referred to-
Description of the said monument
Name of monument
District and Town or Village in which situated
Collector of.................By order and direction of the State Government for and on behalf of the Governor in the presence of... Signed by the said........in the presence of..............
Licence under Rule 1(3)Licence is hereby granted by the Archaeological Officer, Orissa, under the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1956 (Orissa Act 12 of 1956) to.............of............after first obtaining the written permission of the Collector of................to enter upon the area has, under the provisions as a 'Protected Area' and to carry out excavation for the purpose of archaeological research within the limits shown by a red boundary line, or mark upon the plan attached thereto subject always nevertheless to the provisions of the said Act and to the terms and Conditions contained in the rules framed by the Government of Orissa under Section 21 (2) of the said Act and the extract of which rules from the rules or the whole Act are attached, herewith. The said..........being the licensee has deposited with the Archaeological Officer the sum of Rs................. or............ to the amount etc, Rs.............security etc., as the case may be, by way of security etc. This licence is granted for period of............ years, commencing from the..............day of ...........but may be extended by endorsement under the hand of the Archaeological Officer for such period as the Archaeological Officer may deem fit.
Form - IV-B
Bond under Rule 11 (3)We, A.................of.......................(hereinafter called "the licensee") and B ............of and C ....................... of ............. (hereinafter called "the sureties") are held and firmly bound to the President his successors in office or assigns for which payment to be/will and truly made we find ourselves jointly and severally and each of us finds his personal representatives by these presents sealed with our respective seals dated this ................day of.............20......by the Archaeological Officer to carry out excavations for purposes of archaeological research with the "Protected Area" and the limits specified in the said licence subject to the terms and conditions prescribed in the rules made under Section 21 of the Orissa Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1956 (Orissa Act 12 of 1956), a copy of which rules is annexed to the said licence and whereas it has been agreed that with the permission of the Government of Orissa the licensee in lieu of depositing security in cash shall enter into this Bond of the due fulfilment of the provisions of the rules and the two sureties have agreed to stand as security for the one and faithful observance by the licensee of the said rules. Now the conditions of the above written Bond are such that if the above mentioned licensee shall not duly fulfil the terms and condition prescribed by the above mentioned rules and keep the Archaeological Officer indemnified against the loss or damage caused by the negligence or oversight of himself or any of his agents, the Bond above written will be void, otherwise the same will continue in full force and virtue.
(To be signed by the)
Secretary to Government of
Orissa Education Department
Rules regarding the decipherment, preservation and publication of inscriptions on stone and copper and regarding their custodyI. The discovery of any inscription should at once be reported in the accompanying form to the Archaeological Officer of Orissa by all employees of the Government and general public whose co-operation is essential in this matter. Full particulars should be given as to the disposal of the inscription pending further instruction; and, if it is not the property of Government or cannot be placed in the custody of Government Officers report should be made as to what steps are being or can be taken to secure either the original or an impression of it. If possible an impression of the inscription should be obtained according to the directions contained in the accompanying rule and forwarded along with the report. II. The Archaeological Officer, Orissa on receiving news of any discovery should immediately suggest the best arrangement for its decipherment and publication through the Curator of the Museum in charge of epigraphy. III. The Archaeological Officer, Orissa will, as soon as possible after receipt of impressions or plates, return to the sender a short abstract of the contents of each inscription. IV. Inscriptions attached to buildings or monuments ought, on no account, to be separated from them, unless for some special reason, such as risk or their being lost or destroyed. V. Care should be taken to retain for deposit in the State museum, all movable originals which belong to or acquired by the Government. -
Archaeological Department Of Orissa
Inscription FormTo be filled in and addressed to the Superintendent of Archaeology. Orissa, New capital, Bhubaneswar. 1. State 2. District 3. Tahsil 4. Town or Village 5. Exact Site 6. Inscribed Object 7. Language 8. Character 9. Condition 10. Size 11. Custody 12. Accessibility 13. Local Information 14. Special Notes
Name and designation of Informant
Direction for filling up the above Form1-4. The names of localities should be given both in the Roman and in the Nagari, Oriya or Persian character, written as far as possible. 5. The site should be described with some accuracy as to enable anybody to find the spot without difficulty. 6. It should be stated whether the inscription is on a building (any if so, its nature and name and the place of the inscription should be added) or on a rock, stone, metal plate or other object. 7-8. If no reliable information is available, these items should be left blank. 9. Here state whether much worn or erased, imperfect, in good condition, paint, etc. 10. Here state the size of the stone slab or plate on which the inscription is found, and the number and length of the lines of which it consists. 11. If known, state designation of officer, trustee or custodian of shrine, etc. 12. Here simply state "easy" or "difficult". State in the special notes the reasons i. e., whether from natural circumstances or situation or from the attitude of the custodian. 13. Here simply state "See statement attached" or "None". If any statement is attached, state in it any story connected with the inscription, and if it can be read locally, which reader has to say of its contents.
I. Inscriptions on Stone
Process - A1. First clean the stone thoroughly, washing and removing all dust, dirt, grease, moss or other exudate from its surface. Use no force in this process, make no attempt to render a letter or sign clearer by the use of a chisel or any attempt to "Improve" the writing. Do not ink or blacken the surface of the stone so as to render the letters clearer, as although this may help you, it injures the stone and makes it difficult for others to use it properly. 2. Take a sheet of printing paper, such as is commonly used for newspapers, of the better class and thoroughly soak it in water for some minutes. For rough inscriptions use ordinary country-made paper. 3. Before placing it on the stone soak the stone itself well with water. 4. Take the sheet of paper by the four corners and place it as evenly as you can and your assistant can manage on the surface of the stone. It will adhere on itself as long as it is wet. 5. Take stiff brush, dabber or handkerchief and commence beating the paper slowly from the centre outwards so as to get rid of all air-bubbles. Go on beating until the paper has taken the exact shape of the stone and followed every hollow and inequality. It will crack and split in many places if the inscription is cut directly or the inequalities of the surface are great, in which case a second and, if necessary third sheet should be laid wet over the first. 6. Do not try and pull the paper off the stone when the beating process is over. When it is dry it will come off itself. In India, in dry weather, the tendency is for the paper to dry it does not get wet 7. When the beating process is finished you will find that you have made a paper cast or stereotype of the original stone. This will when dry, be quite hard and capable of resisting considerable pressure. All that is required for packing is to roll it up and to take care that it does not get wet. 8. If the sheets are not large enough to cover the whole stone, which will frequently be the case, repeat the above process over different parts of the stone taking care that each sheet overlaps its neighbour so that its proper place can afterwards be easily determined 9. Like every mechanical process the above requires a certain amount of practice before it can be done well. In order to ensure accuracy and to make the reproducer to correct errors in the sheet selected for reproduction, it is best, if practicable to take three impressions of every part of the stone. 10. Intelligent persons can be taught the process without much difficulty.
Process -B1. This process can be employed at the same time as process 'A' and will greatly increase the value of the impression ; but it requires special materials and more experience than the above. 2. Take an ordinary printer's ink-roller, pass it, after taking it with uniform pressure over the paper while it is still on the stone and still slightly damp, but not wet. A dabber of cotton wool covered with leather can be specially made for the purpose. The raised parts will thus come out black and every depression and inequality will appear white. Minute accuracy can be obtained by this process. 3. The paper should be left to dry on the stone as before, and can be rolled up for packing without fear. The ink to be used can be either any ink or printing ink obtainable from any bazaar of a mixture of lampblack, gum and water. Care should be taken to use the right quantity ; too much ink will blur the impression. Too thick ink will rip the paper off the stone. Too thin ink will spoil your impression, so will a too great or an uneven pressure of the roller.
II. Inscriptions on MetalInscribed plates of copper should preferably be sent to the office of the Archaeological Officer, Orissa for reproduction after which they will be returned immediately. In case the owner of the plate objects to such a course, the following process should be followed : 1. Open out the letters, where clogged with needle and knife after washing the plate with soap and water. It this fails a weak nitric acid solution may be tried and applied very carefully so as not to injure the plate. 2. When dry go over the plate with printer's ink and a dabber. A very good dabber is made with a big cork, over the end of which is Syretobed a piece of kid with a little pad of cotton between. Printer's ink can be had from any press. A little ink should be poured on a piece of glass and spread out and worked over with the dabber until the latter is evenly coated before it is applied to the plate. 3. When this is done get your paper ready. Thick soft paper is best, such as good thick cartridge or drawing paper. Cut the paper a few inches all round larger than the plate. Lay the latter face down upon the paper, after damping the letter, fold the paper over the back of the plate. This effectually prevents it from moving. If the plate is provided with ring, a hole should be cut in the paper and a slit made for the ring to pass through. 4. Turn the plate face up, and with a piece of hard smooth foolscap paper between, commence to rub the back of the paper evenly all over with the top of a glass stopper of a bottle. The paper must be kept damp throughout by laying a folded damp level over the parts you are not working on. Then remove the paper carefully and let it dry. The prints are reversed, but these are reversed again when photographed for publication. 5. After taking the impression, the plate should be thoroughly, cleaned with spirits or turpentine and then brushed with soap-water, so as to remove all traces of printing ink.